1 of 45
Hormones regulate __________.
all of the above
2 of 45
The function of the sphincter at the downstream end of the stomach is to __________.
retain acid chime in the stomach until pepsin digestion is complete
release bile into the duodenum when chime is present
release pancreatic secretions into the duodenum when chime is present
release bile and pancreatic secretions into the duodenum when chime is present
release acid chime into the duodenum in periodic squirts
3 of 45
Which of the following best describes the relationship of insulin to glucagon?
They work together to prepare the body to deal with stress.
Insulin stimulates the pancreas to secrete glucagon.
High levels of insulin inhibit pancreatic secretion of glucagon.
They are antagonistic hormones.
Insulin is a steroid hormone; glucagon is a protein hormone.
4 of 45
Maintaining the volume and composition of body fluids is the direct responsibility of which of the following systems?
5 of 45
In vitro fertilization __________.
can be used to select the sex of an embryo
permits the screening of embryos for genetic defects
can use eggs that have been frozen
all of the above
none of the above
6 of 45
are shaped like the letter B
are generalists in that any antibody can bind to any antigen
consist of three polypeptide chains
assist in destroying particular antigens
All of the above are true
7 of 45
Which of the following is one of the body’s first lines of defense against infection?
a group of nonspecific antibodies
several nonspecific amino acid toxins
several nonspecific obstacles such as skin and mucous membranes
increased production of certain hormones and changes in the blood circulation
an increasing in the breathing rate
8 of 45
A vasectomy __________.
prevents the production of sperm in the testes
prevents the production of semen
prevents the movement of sperm into the urethra
prevents a man from having an erection
is an effective method to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases
9 of 45
The appendix, bone marrow, thymus, and spleen are all parts of the ______ system.
10 of 45
Which type of tissue forms a communication and coordination system within the body?
11 of 45
Why do diseases involving widespread infection usually result in a fever?
The rapid multiplication of the invading microorganisms results in extra heat production.
The inflammatory and immune responses result in extra heat production.
The invading microorganisms trick the brain’s temperature control center into raising the temperature so they can grow better.
The brain’s temperature control center responds to inflammation by creating a hot environment unfavorable to microorganisms.
Fevers insure that you will stay in bed longer so that your body can recover from the illness.
12 of 45
When the wall of the stomach fails to protect itself from erosion by gastric juice, the result is __________.
a duodenal ulcer
a gastric ulcer
13 of 45
Most of the oxygen in the blood is transported by __________.
14 of 45
What is the main function of connective tissue?
response to stimuli
15 of 45
Which of the following organs is NOT in the abdominal cavity?
16 of 45
Temperature regulation, hormone distribution, and exchanging nutrients and wastes with the interstitial fluid are all functions of the __ system.
17 of 45
Most nutrient absorption occurs in which part of the digestive system?
18 of 45
What are the four fundamental types of body tissues?
connective, cardiac, nervous, and adipose tissue.
connective, epithelial, nervous, and muscle tissue.
epithelial, hormonal, cellular, and bone tissue.
epitheli al, glandular, muscle, and nervous tissue.
connective, neurons, muscle, and cartilage tissue.
19 of 45
is the maintenance of a constant internal state
only comes into play when you are ill
is a pathological condition
is the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment
is the way the internal environment influences the external environment
20 of 45
When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release which of the following chemical alarm signals?
21 of 45
The four stages of food processing are, in order:
ingestion, absorption, elimination, digestion
ingestion, elimination, digestion, absorption
ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
digestion, absorption, ingestion, elimination
elimination, absorption, digestion, ingestion
22 of 45
All veins carry __________.
blood toward the heart
blood away from the heart
23 of 45
Once an action potential is triggered, the first major chemical change is __________.
a reversal of the membrane polarity, with the interior of the cell becoming positive
a reversal of the membrane polarity, with the interior of the cell becoming negative
an increase in the negative charge inside the neuron
an increase in the positive charge inside the neuron
propagation of an impulse
24 of 45
White blood cells play a particularly important role in __________.
carrying carbon dioxide
25 of 45
Which one of the following types of tissue stores fat in the body?
fibrous connective tissue
26 of 45
The basic structural and functional part of the kidney is the __________.
27 of 45
Why are human testes located in an external sac rather than in the abdominal cavity?
to shorten the distance that semen must travel during ejaculation
to shorten the distance that sperm must swim during insemination
so the testes can be kept at a constant temperature
so the testes can be kept cooler than the body’s interior
so the testes can enlarge at sexual maturity
28 of 45
In a human male reproductive system:
a circumcision removes a portion of the scrotum.
the vas deferens conducts sperm between the testis and epididymis.
the sperm travel through the urethra during ejaculation.
sperm mature in the prostate gland.
sperm are produced in the bladder and released through the scrotum.
29 of 45
In the human respiratory system, gas exchange occurs across the cells of the _____.
30 of 45
The correct term to describe the production of the human sperm is __________.
31 of 45
Outnumbering neurons by up to 50 to 1, which cells protect, insulate, and reinforce neurons?
32 of 45
Trace the path of a red blood cell in a circuit that takes it from the capillary bed of the right kidney to the capillary bed of the left kidney.
capillary bed of right kidney….venules….veins….right atrium….right ventricle….pulmonary arteries….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary veins….left atrium….left ventricle….aorta….arteries….arterioles…. capillary bed of left kidney
capillary bed of right kidney….venules….veins….right atrium….right ventricle…. pulmonary veins….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary arteries….left atrium….left ventricle…..aorta….arteries….arterioles….capillary bed of left kidney
capillary bed of right kidney….venules….v eins…..left atrium….left ventricle…. pulmonary arteries….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary veins….right atrium…. right ventricle….aorta….arteries…..arterioles….capillary bed of left kidney
capillary bed of right kidney….arterioles….arteries….aorta….right atrium….right ventricle….pulmonary arteries….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary veins….left atrium ….left ventricle….veins….venules….capillary bed of left kidney
capillary bed of right kidney….venules….veins….left atrium….left ventricle…. pulmonary veins….capillaries of lungs….pulmonary arteries….right atrium…. right ventricle….aorta….arteries….arterioles….capillary bed of left kidney
33 of 45
A vaccine contains __________.
a killed pathogen
non-infective fragments of a pathogen
all of the above may be used in a vaccine
Vaccines only contain genetically-modified virus particles
34 of 45
Which of the following organs of the digestive system is different from the other four because it does NOT produce any secretions that aid in the digestive process?
Important secretions are released by all of the above organs.
35 of 45
Which of the following is NOT a true statement about the human female?
She produces all the eggs that she ever will before she is born.
She will normally produce more gametes than her male counterpart.
It is possible that more than one egg will be released at ovulation.
The process of meiosis may take 30 to 50 years to complete.
The ovary is the primary reproductive organ.
36 of 45
What are the two main divisions of the skeletal system?
cranial and axial
vertebral and appendicular
appendicular and axial
axial and articular
articular and cranial
37 of 45
What moves the human egg through the oviduct?
the beating of the egg’s cilia
the beating of the egg’s flagella
rhythmic contractions of the oviduct
rhythmic contractions of the uterus
the beating of cilia in the oviduct
38 of 45
When you examine fluid that you have drawn from a blood vessel, you find that it is relatively high in carbon dioxide and waste products. Assuming that the fluid comes from a healthy individual, you conclude that the blood vessel from which you have drawn the blood could have been __________.
either an artery or an arteriole
39 of 45
Which of the following is a junction between two neurons?
Node of Ranvier
40 of 45
Which of the following is a major category of animal tissue?
41 of 45
When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to breathe again?
rising oxygen level
rising carbon dioxide level
falling oxygen level
falling carbon dioxide level
both rising carbon dioxide level and falling oxygen levels
42 of 45
Which of the following carry incoming messages toward the cell body of a neuron?
43 of 45
Which of the following is true of a typical skeletal muscle?
Contraction is involuntary.
It is found in the walls of organs such as the digestive tract.
Its fibers do not have a striped appearance under the microscope.
It can be enlarged by exercise.
It is only found in heart tissue.
44 of 45
Oxygen moves from the alveoli to the bloodstream __________.
because the concentration of oxygen is greater in alveoli than in the blood
mainly due to the activity of carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells
because there is more oxygen in the blood than in the bloodstream
through active transport through the cell membrane
to escape from the body as a waste product
45 of 45
Animals need oxygen because it __________.
plays a role in obtaining energy from food
counterbalances the CO2 in the atmosphere
helps animals synthesize proteins
is necessary to make CO2
is needed to deliver hemoglobin to all the cells in the body