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Week 4 Forum – Enclosure Fire Dynamics
Fire service professionals must achieve a solid theoretical knowledge of fire behavior, specifically enclosure fire behavior, to perform their duties effectively. In general, enclosure fire behavior is the study of the chemical and physical mechanisms controlling a fire within a compartment or room. Statistics and historical data prove that enclosure fires are the most dangerous to human life.
Once you complete the Week 4 readings, write a post to achieve the following:
1. Discuss the stages of an enclosure fire.
2. Define and discuss flashover, flameover, and backdraft as was stated in the Gorbett and Hopkins article.
3. List three components that control flashover, flameover and backdraft. That is three components for each.
4. List three indicators that a flashover, flameover, or backdraft may occur. That is three indicators for each.
There are four stages of an enclosure fire. The stages are ignition, growth, full room involvement and decay. An enclosure fire begins with ignition, which is the initial combustion when the three parts of the fire triangle are present, oxygen, fuel and heat. The next stage of an enclosure fire is growth. Growth occurs when the initial items burning begin to spread to other items in the enclosure causing the fire to grow and spread. The third stage of an enclosure fire is full room involvement, this takes place when all items within the enclosure have ignited and are burning. The final stage of a compartment fire is called decay.
As the contents of the enclosure are burned up and fuel or oxygen begins to be depleted in the enclosure the fire will begin to die out.
As we read in the Gorbett and Hopkins article the first definitions of Flashover from NFPA 1948 reference research from World War II. Flashover is defined as “A stage in the development of a contained fire in which all exposed surfaces reach ignition temperatures more or less simultaneously and fire spreads rapidly through the space.” (NFPA 921-2000) Gregory Gorbett and Professor Hopkins also list different and varying definitions of flashover throughout the article as they are referenced in different NFPA editions. The most practical definition of Flashover is described as “ A transitional phase in the development of a compartment fire in which surfaces exposed to thermal radiation reach ignition temperatures more or less simultaneously and fire spreads rapidly throughout the space resulting in full room involvement or total involvement of the compartment or enclosed area” (NFPA 921 2004 edition p.11)
According to the Gorbett and Hopkins article the definition of Flameover has changed over the years the earliest definition of Flameover was defined as “A fire that spreads rapidly over the exposed linty surface of the cotton bales. In the cotton industry, the common term is flashover and has the same meaning.” The definition of flameover as described in the article also references varying definitions found in various publications over the years. All other definitions of flameover pertain to or reference “full room involvement” of combustible materials.
Backdraft also has various definitions according to the Gorbett and Hopkins article. One definition derived from the NFPA is “A deflagration resulting from the sudden introduction of air into a confined space containing oxygen-deficient products of incomplete combustion.” The article also provides definitions of backdraft as described by several other sources and authors.
Three components that control flashover are ambient temperature at the beginning of a fire, location of the fire within the compartment and heat release rate.
Three components that control backdraft are an underventilated compartment fire, sudden introduction of air and a gravity current carries fresh air into a compartment.
The three components that control flameover are an underventilated compartment fire, one or more of the fuels present in the layer accumulates to within its flammability range and ignition occurs at the location of the flammable mixture and the flame spreads until the local fuel and or oxygen is exhausted.
Three indicators that a flashover may occur are that the fire is in a ventilated compartment with oxygen available, all exposed combustible material is showing signs of combustion and there is a rapid buildup of heat in the compartment.
Three indicators that a flameover may occur are the upper layer begins to thicken, decreasing visibility, the upper layer temperature increases and there is turbulent mixing in the upper layer.
Three indicators that a backdraft may occur are no visible flames present in a room, hot doors and windows and window glass is discolored and may be cracked from heat.
The Current Knowledge & Training Regarding Backdraft, Flashover and Other Rapid Fire Progression Phenomena by Gregory E. Gorbett & Professor Ronald Hopkins
This week we are asked to discuss the stages of an enclosure fire, define each stage, the components, and indicators of the fire stages.
There are four stages of an enclosure fire, with the first being the incipient stage, which is the initial stage of the fire. There is enough heat/fuel/oxygen to support combustion. The second stage is the growth stage. If provided with enough fuel and oxygen, the fire will spread by direct flame contact or by the other fuel in the room, reaching its ignition temperature. The third stage is the fully developed stage. At this stage, the fire has consumed all the fuel within the compartment. In our reading, it stated that just because the fire is in the fully devolved stage, it does not mean that the fire flashed. The last stage is the decay stage, where the fire has either consumed all the fuel load or became an oxygen-deficient fire where there is no more oxygen to support further combustion.
Flashover is when all the fuel within the room reaches a temperature where the items ignite at the same time. Flashover occurs between the growth stage and the fully developed stage. Flame over or rollover is where heated gases rise to the ceiling and ignite. A rollover is usually a precursor to flashover. A backdraft is when oxygen suddenly is introduced into an oxygen-limited fire. The air mixes, and when added to an ignition source, it explodes.
The three components that would control flashover are to cool down the heated gas/smoke above. The old-timers always taught me never to apply water to smoke. But with all the research now, it is acceptable to try to cool down the gases. I believe if you apply water in the smoke and no water droplets come down that the temperature is around 900-1000 degrees. Another way to control a flashover is to get to the seat of the fire and extinguish the fire. Lastly, to control a flashover would be to coordinate ventilation to let out the hot gases; that way, the compartment would never reach flashover temps. Three ways to manage a backdraft would be to ventilate the compartment, practice good door control, and last is to not start any new flow paths in the building to limit oxygen.
The three indicators of a flashover are temperatures over 1100 degrees, windows breaking, and a rollover occurring. Three indicators of a backdraft are windows cracking because of the pressure, windows turning a greyish ellow color, and lastly, it would appear the fire is breathing.
Whenever the people are well informed, they can be trusted with their own government. —Thomas Jefferson
A hot-button issue in the American/International Political climate is climate change. This has also been heavily influenced by media interpretation and coverage. The scientific evidence supports the perspective that global climate change is the result of the impact of our species on the environment. However, some hold the perspective that it is just part of the earth’s natural cycle. In the meantime, billions of dollars are being invested in projects and initiatives related to climate change. This has become a very divisive issue, with strong opinions about the topic. It also raises the question of who should be trusted when it comes to issues such as these—the people running our governments, scientists, or the media.
After reviewing this week’s material, in your initial response, consider each perspective. In America, what “side” of the climate change issue do you hear about most from politicians or the media? Do you think this could have an influence on the direction in which climate change research is headed? Why or why not?
1. Why does Segal introduce this quote by T.S. Eliot: “Humankind cannot bear very much reality”? Explain your answer. Use examples from the article “My Grandfather’s Walking Stick.”
2. Kant enumerates several natural and devilish vices. How do you think Kant would view lying as discussed by Segal and gossip as discussed by Bok? Would he put gossip and lying in the natural or the devilish category of vice? Explain your answer. (Make sure you answer all parts.)
3. Under what circumstances could some human activities that we normally conceive as vices be considered at other times virtuous?
“When supported with education, a person’s integrity can give him something to rely on when his perspective seems to blur, when rules and principles seem to waiver, and when he’s faced with hard choices of right or wrong.” –James Stockdale
4. Is it important to have integrity? If so, why? If not, why not?
a. Should we ever sacrifice our integrity for the greater good of humankind? (Cf. Module 5 on Utilitarianism) Explain your answer.
b. How would Aristotle defend the virtue of integrity? (Cf. Module 5) Explain your answer.
5. Using Stoic Ethics as discussed in “The World of Epictetus,” and Plato’s “The Ring of Gyges respond to the following questions:
a. What would you do if you had the ring of Gyges? Would you use it for good or for evil? Why?
b. How is the Stoic ethic, an ethics of integrity, contrary to Glaucon’s contention that the best form of justice is doing wrong with impunity? Use the “Ring of Gyges” story to explain your answer.
7. How is Stoic Ethics helpful for keeping one’s integrity especially when under enormous pressure to give it up? Be sure to examine Stockdale’s eight year stay in a Vietnam prisoner of war camp to explain your answer. And also be sure to explain how the Bible especially the lessons from Job and the works the Stoic Philosopher Epictetus help him through these horrific years.
As an NP student, you need to determine the medications for onychomycosis.
1. According to the AAFP/CDC Guidelines, what antifungal medication(s) should this patient be prescribed, and for how long? Write her complete prescriptions using the prescription writing format in your textbook.
2. What labs for baseline and follow up of therapy would you order for this patient? Give rationale.
APA 6th ed format. 2 references less than 5 years.
Chief complaint: “ My right great toe has been hurting for about 2 months and now it’s itchy, swollen and yellow. I can’t wear closed shoes and I was fine until I started going to the gym”.
HPI: E.D a 38 -year-old Caucasian female presents to the clinic with complaint of pain, itching, inflammation, and “yellow” right great toe. She noticed that the toe was moderately itching after she took a shower at the gym. She did not pay much attention. About two weeks after the itching became intense and she applied Benadryl cream with only some relief. She continued going to the gym and noticed that the itching got worse and her toe nail started to change color. She also indicated that the toe got swollen, painful and turned completely yellow 2 weeks ago. She applied lotrimin AF cream and it did not help relief her symptoms. She has not tried other remedies.
Denies associated symptoms of fever and chills.
PMH: Diabetes Mellitus, type 2.
Medication: Metformin 500mg PO BID.
Vaccination History: Immunization is up to date and she received her flu shot this year.
Social history: College graduate married and no children. She drinks 1 glass of red wine every night with dinner. She is a former smoker and quit 6 years ago.
Family history:Both parents are alive. Father has history of DM type 2, Tinea Pedis. mother alive and has history of atopic dermatitis, HTN.
Constitutional: Negative for fever. Negative for chills.
Respiratory: No Shortness of breath. No Orthopnea
Cardiovascular: Regular rhythm.
Skin: Right great toe swollen, itchy, painful and discolored.
Psychiatric: No anxiety. No depression.
Height: 5 feet 5 inches Weight: 140 pounds BMI: 31 obesity, BP 130/70 T 98.0, P 88 R 22, non-labored
HEENT: Normocephalic/Atraumatic, Bilateral cataracts; PERRL, EOMI; No teeth loss seen. Gums no redness.
NECK: Neck supple, no palpable masses, no lymphadenopathy, no thyroid enlargement.
LUNGS: No Crackles. Lungs clear bilaterally. Equal breath sounds. Symmetrical respiration. No respiratory distress.
HEART: Normal S1 with S2 during expiration. Pulses are 2+ in upper extremities. 1+ pitting edema ankle bilaterally.
ABDOMEN: No abdominal distention. Nontender. Bowel sounds + x 4 quadrants. No organomegaly. Normal contour; No palpable masses.
GENITOURINARY: No CVA tenderness bilaterally. GU exam deferred.
MUSCULOSKELETAL: Slow gait but steady. No Kyphosis.
SKIN: Right great toe with yellow-brown discoloration in the proximal nail plate. Marked periungual inflammation. + dryness. No pus. No neuro deficit.
PSYCH: Normal affect. Cooperative.
Labs: Hgb 13.2, Hct 38%, K+ 4.2, Na+138, Cholesterol 225, Triglycerides 187, HDL 37, LDL 190, TSH 3.7, glucose 98.
Primary Diagnosis: Proximal subungual onychomycosis
Differential Diagnosis: Irritant Contact Dermatitis, Lichen Planus, Nail Psoriasis
Fungal culture confirms fungal infection.
For this discussion, answer the following:
- Which public health theories and models presented in the course do you prefer? Why?
- How might these theories or models help you in your personal life?
- How might these theories or models help you in your current employment?
- How would you like to make a difference?
- Which theories or models best fit the changes you would like to see?
- Which topics in the news related to the application of these theories or models should you follow?
Open the attached files….
Develop a response to this question. Ensure you have answered all parts of the question completely. Complete this assignment described below using complete sentences in a paragraph format, and be sure to check your spelling when complete.
Please read the Discussion Board Directions located on the course menu on the left side of the screen before you begin to post or reply.
A list of specific types of transporters found in cell membranes is given below. Choose ONE of these and then describe in detail:
- how the transporter works
- whether it is an active or passive transporter
- a specific type of cell that it can be found in and why it is important in this cell type
- consequences for body function when this transporter type fails (due to a mutation that makes it non-functional).
- Sodium/Potassium Pump (this one is quite straight forward so you should be able to give a very detailed description).
- GLUT transporters (choose one of these):
- GLUT 1
- GLUT 2
- GLUT 3
- GLUT 4
- Sodium/Glucose transporters in enterocytes
- Gated ion channels in the cochlea of the ear
- Voltage-gated Na+ channel
- Voltage-gated K+ channel
- Voltage-gated Ca+2 channel
- Chloride leak channels
- Hydrogen ion (H+) ATPase
- Dopamine transporter (DAT)
- Serotonin transporter
- Norepinephrine transporter
In some cases, you may be able to find a specific related disease. If you do not, think about why the transporter needs to be in the cell type you named and think about what would happen to the body if the transporter did not work.
Respond to Others: Many of the descriptions will be quite technical. It is your job to write the description for your transporter so that your classmates can easily understand it. This means you will probably have to look up quite a few terms and re-word them into “common” language. Compare and contrast the type of transporter you reviewed with those that others reviewed. Choose a transporter reviewed by another student and go into more depth on the mechanism by which it operates or the need for the transporter in the cell type in which it is found, and make corrections to another student’s post if they are incorrect about something they have posted.
Discussion Board Grading Rubric:
1. Original posting: (7 points)
- Posting is at least 100 words, and has proper grammar and punctuation (2 points).
- Posting fully addresses the discussion board questions. (2 points)
- Discussion is original and at a critical level, not just recitation of facts. (2 points)
- Proper citation of references. (1 point)
2. Reply to peer discussion posts: (3 points)
- Discuss one point you like/agree with, and one point you dislike/disagree with and explain why. (2 points)
- Length of positing consists of approximately 100 words minimum. (1 point)
Please respond the this student’s answer.
Christine Piper Discussion Board 2
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter affecting multiple physiological processes and cognitive brain functions, among them mood and emotions, which is why it has been linked to mood disorders such as depression. The way a serotonin transporter works is a serotonin transporter is an integral membrane protein found in abundance in the human brain. It moves the neurotransmitter serotonin from the space between synapses, the synaptic cleft, into presynaptic neurons. In doing this, it terminates the action of the mood-stabilizing neurotransmitter and recycles it. The neurons in the brain communicate with each other using serotonin and similar substances. The presence of this particular protein regulates the concentraition of serotonin in the synapse, and changes or disruptions in the serotonin transporter system are shown to have major effects on various mental health issues. When serotonin is active outside our brain cells, we become nervours, unhappy or unable to eel any pleasure. One main function is to help people feel calm, aide in sleep, and maintain a healthy appetite. Consequeses or fail to function or those who suffer from low serotonin levels generally suffer from insomnia, depression, or both.