In what ways do we develop?

LA 255-Life Span Psychology

What are we talking about?

Lifespan development is a scientific approach to understanding human growth and change throughout life

In what ways do we develop?

What are we talking about?

Lifespan development is a scientific approach to understanding human growth and change throughout life

In what ways do we develop?

Physical

What are we talking about?

Lifespan development is a scientific approach to understanding human growth and change throughout life

In what ways do we develop?

Physical

Cognitive

What are we talking about?

Lifespan development is a scientific approach to understanding human growth and change throughout life

In what ways do we develop?

Physical

Cognitive

Social

What are we talking about?

Lifespan development is a scientific approach to understanding human growth and change throughout life

In what ways do we develop?

Physical

Cognitive

Social

Personality

The SCIENTIFIC part

Scientific Method?

Scientific Method

Question

Preliminary Research

Hypothesis

Test Hypothesis

Analyze

Developmental Ranges

Prenatal- before birth

Infancy and Toddlerhood- 0 to 3 years

Preschool- 3 to 6 years

Middle Childhood- 6 to 12

Adolescence- 12 to 20

Young adulthood- 20 to 40

Middle Adulthood- 40 to 65

Late Adulthood- 65 to death

Developmental Ranges

Prenatal- before birth

Infancy and Toddlerhood- 0 to 3 years

Preschool- 3 to 6 years

Middle Childhood- 6 to 12

Adolescence- 12 to 20

Young adulthood- 20 to 40

Middle Adulthood- 40 to 65

Late Adulthood- 65 to death

Some stages are marked by a biological event, like puberty, some are social constructions

Cohort

People born around the same time and place

Similar influences on their development

Historical events

Age

Sociocultural factors (class, ethnicity, subculture)

Non-normative life events

Question for the class

What are some cohort effects on your life? Unique effects on your generation

Change Over Time

Continuous

Gradual over time

Same behaviors in each stage, different abilities

Discontinuous

Change occurs in stages

Behaviors are different in each stage

Critical and Sensitive Periods

Critical Period- a time during development when a particular event has a severe consequence

Sensitive Period- a time when an organism is particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in the environment

The optimal period for particular capacities to emerge

Hippocrates and his humors

Imbalance of humors (bodily fluids) leads to dysfunctional behavior

Blood- upbeat, positive

Phlegm- apathy

Yellow Bile- aggression, irritability

Black Bile- melancholy, sadness

Nature v Nurture

It’s not a debate anymore your textbook is a liar

It’s both

Theoretical Perspectives on Lifespan Development

Psychodynamic

Freud

Erikson

Behavioral

Watson

Skinner

Cognitive

Piaget

Humanistic

Rogers

Maslow

Contextual

Bronfenbrenner

Vygotsky

Evolutionary

Darwin

Sigmund Freud

Inner forces, intrapsychic events, guide motivation and behavior

Id

Pleasure Principle

Ego

Reality principle

Superego

Conscience

Freud’s Psychosexual Development

Oral 0 to 12 months

Oral 0 to 12 months

Anal 12 to 18 months-3 years

Freud’s Psychosexual Development

Oral 0 to 12 months

Anal 12 to 18 months-3 years

Phallic 3 to 5 or 6 years

Freud’s Psychosexual Development

Freud’s Psychosexual Development

Oral 0 to 12 months

Anal 12 to 18 months-3 years

Phallic 3 to 5 or 6 years

Latent 6 to adolescence

Freud’s Psychosexual Development

Oral 0 to 12 months

Anal 12 to 18 months-3 years

Phallic 3 to 5 or 6 years

Latent 6 to adolescence

Genital Adolescence to adulthood

Erik Erikson

Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt

Initiative vs. Guilt

Industry vs. Inferiority

Identity vs. Role confusion

Intimacy vs. Isolation

Generativity vs. Stagnation

Integrity vs. Despair

Trust vs. Mistrust

0-1 year

1-3 years

3-6 years

6-11 years

Adolescence

Young adulthood

Middle Adulthood

Late Adulthood

Behavioral Perspective

Classical Conditioning- John Watson

Operant Conditioning- B.F. Skinner

Operant Conditioning

Rewards and Punishments

Positive Reinforcement

Negative Reinforcement

Punishment

Operant Conditioning

Positive = add something

Negative = take something away

Reinforcement = increases chances behavior will be repeated

Punishment = decreases the chances behavior will be repeated

Social-Cognitive Learning Theory

Albert Bandura

Observe behavior of another

Recall behavior accurately

Mimic behavior accurately

Must be motivated for the reward

Cognitive Perspective

Jean Piaget

Theory of Cognitive Development

Schemas

Assimilation vs. Accommodation

Stages

Sensorimotor (0-2 yrs)

Preoperational (2-7 yrs)

Concrete Operational (7-11 yrs)

Formal Operational (Adolescence – Adulthood)

Humanistic Perspective

People are in control of their lives and decision making process

Emphasis on Free Will

Carl Rogers

Abraham Maslow

Carl Rogers

Unconditional Positive Regard- we need it

Self-worth is dependent on how others treat us

Abraham Maslow

Hierarchy of Needs

Contextual Perspective

Individuals don’t exist in a vacuum

Urie Bronfenbrenner

Lev Vygotsky

Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model

Vygotsky

Theory of Sociocultural Development

Evolutionary Perspective

Darwin’s Origin of Species

We develop for survival

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